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Vic Branch Resources


We hope this page can answer as many questions for people new to EVs. It is structured so that the simplest information is first, and more details follow for those who wish to seek a deeper understanding.


If you have any questions, please feel free to contact AEVA Vic Branch.


Unless otherwise referenced, contents are from AEVA Vic Branch volunteers, and are for general information only. AEVA Vic Branch is not liable for any errors. Last update: 28/5/23




  1. EV Mythbusting Resources
  2. Range Estimates
  3. Range vs. Energy Consumption
  4. Charging
  5. Towing


EV Mythbusting Resources - EV Council - SolarQuotes, written by Ronald Brakels (2021, still largely current)) - TheDriven, written by Bryce Gaton (2021, still largely current)


Other resources from overseas: - US EPA


Range Estimates

Useful resources: - SolarQuotes, written by Ronald Brakels (2022)

Many YouTubers/other people on the internet perform 'range tests' of cars.


You will almost never achieve the rated range of an EV. Just like fuel consumption ratings, the energy consumption of an EV is optimistic.


Many factors can affect range: see Range vs. Energy Consumption


Currently, there are 4 main 'range' values you could see for an EV, listed in order of real-world accuracy (more detail below):

  1. EPA
  2. WLTP (Worldwide Harmonised Light Vehicle Test Procedure)
  3. NEDC (New European Driving Cycle)
  4. CLTC (China Light-Duty Vehicle Test Cycle)


Here in Australia, WLTP is the predominate range calculation, but sometimes NEDC is thrown around to inflate the range of a car - make sure to check the spec sheet for WLTP or NEDC!


A decent resource for 'real-world' estimates is the EV Database:

This database is European, so some models/model variations in the Australian market may not be listed.


AEVA's fact sheets offer detailed information for each vehicle:



More detail (for those wanting a deeper dive):

EPA (USA) is the most realistic, with WLTP (Europe/Australia(ish)) second. If the AU model is the same as the US model, try to use the EPA ratings to guide your expectations (again, be aware that the US model may have a different battery size/etc. to the AU model)


Both NEDC (old Europe/Australia(ish)) and CLTC (China) are woefully optimistic. A rough rule-of-thumb is to take ~30-40% off the rated NEDC range for the realistic range. For example, our 2012 Nissan Leaf was rated for ~180km NEDC, but the furthest we ever travelled was 112km (with downhill assistance!) - pretty garbage, if I do say so myself...

Don't be fooled by NEDC's 'new' in the name - it is actually the oldest of the ratings!


Range vs. Energy Consumption

Range: distance that can be travelled based on energy consumption


Energy consumption: rate of energy consumed per distance (watt-hour per kilometre: Wh/km, kilowatt-hour per 100 kilometres: kWh/100km). For a petrol car, this would be L/100km


Energy consumption is a versatile statistic to know for a car. This can be used to compare vehicles and allow you to more accurately calculate your range (more detail below).


The energy consumption of an EV can be influenced by many factors. Using the air conditioner/heater, driving at high speeds and cold weather can all increase energy consumption, hence reduce range. These also influence the fuel usage of a petrol car, but their effects are more noticeable in an EV.


A decent resource for 'real-world' estimates is the EV Database:

This database is European, so some models/model variations in the Australian market may not be listed.


AEVA's fact sheets offer detailed information for each vehicle:



More detail - MATHS :)

Math GIFs - Get the best gif on GIFER

The energy consumption is calculated by one of the standards listed in the Range Estimates section, and a simple formula is applied to find the range:


Range (km) = Battery Size (kWh) ÷ Energy Consumption (kWh/km)

or similar



If you have too much time on your hands, you too can create your own range formulas! The units are all metric - the possibilities are (almost) endless!


Why does this matter?


In day-to-day life, for most EVs, you don't charge to 100%. When travelling on long trips, you don't want to drain the battery too low (for obvious reasons...)

If you can understand the relationship between range and energy consumption, you can calculate your range for, say, 70% of your battery capacity:


Range = Battery Capacity ÷ Energy Consumption

 Battery capacity: 80kWh ⇒ 70% of battery: 0.7 x 80 = 56kWh, Energy consumption: 157Wh/km ⇒ 0.157kWh/km

∴ Range = 56 ÷ 0.157

= 357km


I can travel 357km, and have 30% battery remaining as a reserve



Extra formulas:

To convert Wh/km to kWh/km:

123Wh/km = 0.123kWh/100km (÷1000)

To convert kWh/100km to kWh/km

12.3kWh/100km = 0.123kWh/100km (÷100)


Knowing this can help boost confidence when driving your EV! Alternatively, it could just be a nice pastime for maths-lovers :)



Useful resources: - SolarQuotes, written by Finn Peacock - YouTube video by Aging Wheels (note: is from American perspective, but mostly applicable to Australia)


Rate of charge: how fast the car can charge (measured in kilowatts: kW). This is similar to high-flow or normal-flow fuel pumps.

Battery capacity: amount of charge the battery can hold (measured in kilowatt-hours: kWh). This is similar to litres in a fuel tank.


AC vs. DC charging:

AC Charging DC Charging
  • Slower (0-22kW)
  • At home/in public
  • Very common (any power point)
  • Typically cheaper
  • Faster (25-350+kW)
  • In public
  • Less common
  • Typically more expensive
  • Could reduce battery life if charged quickly frequently
  • Typically charge to 80% (see below for more)


The time for an EV to charge is entirely dependent on the battery capacity and the rate of charge.

Most people charge at home overnight. Therefore, charging speed does not matter, as long as the car is ready when you are.


Wherever your car is normally charged, whether you use 10 amps, 15 amps or a wall charger, due to the high volumes of energy involved, it is recommended an electrician installs a dedicated circuit.


When charging at a business/friend's house/etc., always ask for permission, be courteous and be aware that their electrical wires may be older than yours (i.e. don't charge at a rate that could cause damage). Thank them!

For more information on etiquette, look at ACT Branch's article:


To find public chargers, use PlugShare:



More Detail (for those wanting a deeper dive):

Why do you usually only charge to 80% at a fast charger?

  • Charge rate decreases as the battery fills up (i.e. car charges faster at 40% than at 80%, and even slower at 90%)
  • Often, other people want to charge as well - it is courteous to be at a charger for no longer than you need
  • Less strain on the battery


How do you calculate rate of charge?

In Australia, we have 240V AC power to our houses.

Power (W) = Voltage (V) x Current (A)


If you charge using 8A off a wall plug:

P = V x I

P = 240 x 8

= 1920W

= 1.92kW

Here is a rough guide:

AC 1 Phase

Power delivered:




Normal Power Point



Special Power Point



Wall Charger/Industrial Power Point

AC 3 Phase





Industrial Power Point



Industrial Power Point



Wall Charger/Industrial Power Point


How long does it take to charge?

Time (h) = Battery Capacity (kWh) ÷ Rate of Charge (kW)


If you charge at a 7kW wall charger with an EV with an 80kWh battery:

Time = 80 ÷ 7

= 11.4 hours




EVs can tow.

(and won't ruin your weekend)


More coming soon